Emission of hydrogen sulfide in sewer networks results in odor, health and corrosion problems. These problems generally occur when wastewater is transported under anaerobic and turbulent conditions. Studies on integrated aerobic/anaerobic processes in sewers have led to a conceptual sewer process model, WATS (Wastewater Aerobic/anaerobic Transformations in Sewers). The WATS model accounts for the carbon cycle, reaeration and sulfide formation. However, to handle odor, health and corrosion problems more efficiently, other aspects of the sulfur cycle need to be included. Emphasis in this study is on an extension of the WATS model in terms of hydrogen sulfide emission. A fundamental concept of this extended model is related to emission of the molecular form of hydrogen sulfide and thereby to pH of wastewater. An engineering application of the extended WATS model includes different scenarios of sewer performance concerning hydrogen sulfide emission under dissolved oxygen-limited conditions. By applying the extended WATS model, users can more realistically cope with the fate of hydrogen sulfide. Consequently, when dealing with the sulfur cycle, users need no longer be restricted to the sulfide formation process but can also take transfer of hydrogen sulfide across the air-water interface into account.

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