Ecohydrology is the science that studies the mutual interaction between the hydrological cycle and ecosystems. Such an interaction is especially intense in water-controlled ecosystems, where water may be a limiting factor, not only because of its scarcity, but also because of its intermittent and unpredictable appearance. Hydrologic dynamics is shown to be a crucial factor for ecological patterns and processes. The probabilistic structure of soil moisture in time and space is presented as the key linkage between soil, climate and vegetation dynamics. Nutrient cycles, vegetation coexistence and plant response to environmental conditions are all intimately linked to the stochastic fluctuation of the hydrologic inputs driving an ecosystem.

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