Rapid urban population growth is occurring, particularly in developing countries, and has led to problems of providing adequate water supply and sanitation. Two dominant policy recommendations have been put forward - raise fees to existing users or increase the role of the private sector in the provision of water and sanitation services. A number of civil disturbances and riots have occurred in response to such proposals. More pragmatic policy initiatives are required to prevent and solve water-related conflicts, as well as new institutional structures to better handle competing and conflicting water demands.

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