Parasite removal and low cost systems for wastewater treatment have become increasingly important requirements in developed and developing countries to safeguard public health from wastewater-associated intestinal diseases. Pilot and field-scale ponds and wetlands in Brazil and Egypt have been investigated for the fate and removal of eggs of human intestinal parasites from domestic wastewater. In northeast Brazil, parasite removal was investigated for a series of five waste stabilisation ponds treating raw wastewater. In Egypt, parasite removal was studied for Gravel Bed Hydroponic constructed wetlands treating partially treated wastewater. Influents to ponds and wetlands contained a variety of parasite helminth eggs (e.g. Ascaris, hookworm, Trichuris, and Hymenolepis spp.). The ponds consistently removed parasite eggs though rate of removal by individual ponds may have been related to influent egg numbers and extent of short-circuiting. Parasite eggs were reduced on average by 94% and 99.9% in the anaerobic and facultative ponds respectively. No eggs were found in effluent from the second maturation pond. In the wetland system, parasite removal varied with reedbed length. The majority of parasite eggs were retained within the first 25 m. Parasite eggs were reduced on average by 98% after treatment in 50 m beds and completely removed after treatment in 100 m beds.

This content is only available as a PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.