The feasibility of full-scale anoxic disinfection of dewatered and digested sludge from Winnipeg, Manitoba with low lime doses and lagoon fly ash was investigated to determine if a class A product could be produced. Lime doses of 50 g, 100 g, and 200 g per kg of biosolids (dry) were used along with fly ash doses of 500 g, 1,000 g, and 1,500 g per kg of biosolids (dry). The mixed product was buried in eight-10 cubic metre trenches at the West End Water Pollution Control Center in Winnipeg. The trenches were backfilled with dirt and trapped to simulate anoxic conditions. Sampling cages were packed with the mixed product and pathogens non-indigenous to Winnipeg's biosolids. The cages were buried amongst the mixed biosolids in the trench. The non-indigenous pathogens spiked in the laboratory were the helminth Ascaris suum and the enteric virus reovirus. Samples were removed at days 12, 40, 69, 291, and 356 and were tested for the presence of fecal Coliform, Clostridium perfringens spores, Ascaris suum eggs, and reovirus. The pH, total solids, and free ammonia content of the mixed product were also determined for each sample. Odor was quantified for samples at both 291 and 356 days. Fecal Coliform bacteria and reovirus were completely inactivated for doses as low as 100 g lime per kg biosolids (dry) and 50 g lime + 500 g fly ash per kg biosolids (dry). Spores of the bacteria C. perfringens experienced a 4-log reduction when treated with 100 g lime per kg biosolids and a 5-log reduction when treated with doses as low as 50 g lime + 500 g fly ash per kg biosolids (dry) after 69 days. Ascaris eggs were completely inactivated in 5 gram packets for all treatments involving 100 g lime per kg biosolids (dry) after 69 days. Class A pathogen requirements were met for all treatments involving a lime dose of at least 100 g per kg biosolids. The odor potential from the produced biosolids is also assessed.
Production of class A biosolids with anoxic low dose alkaline treatment and odor management
M.M. Abu-Orf, J. Brewster, J. Oleszkiewicz, R.S. Reimers, P. Lagasse, B. Amy, D. Glindemann; Production of class A biosolids with anoxic low dose alkaline treatment and odor management. Water Sci Technol 1 May 2004; 49 (10): 131–138. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2004.0626
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