Several thermal solidification processes have been developed mainly in Japan. They are lightweight aggregates, brick, interlocking tile, char, and slag. A full-scale plant of them has been successfully operated for more than 10 years. The quality of the end products is better than the traditional ones. They are all substitutive to existing ones. The Japanese experience proves that all the processes are technically feasible, but not economically. Their manufacturing cost is always higher than market price. In addition, they consume large amounts of energy. However, if they are identified for a process of sludge disposal, all of them are worth considering for a big city where there is no place for the sludge to go. The end products can be reused inside the city. A new alternative is “Portland cement”. A Portland cement manufacturer accepts sewage sludge, if being paid some amount of money. An average payment is US$100 each 1,000 kg of ash or sludge cake. The Portland cement manufacturer accepts either cake or ash at the same price. It is about 50 to 30% of the energy cost of thermal solidification. The question is which is the better, dewatered cake or incinerated ash, for the Portland cement application. The answer is “it depends on the distance between the sewage plant and the Portland cement plant.”

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