Nitrogen input to our environment has increased tremendously during the last four decades. It has been recognized that most of the nitrogenous wastes are produced from animal farms and agro-industries, which discharge a large amount of nitrogen as well as organics. Various biological and physico-chemical means are considered or applied for nitrogen removal. Particularly, biological nitrite nitrification and denitrification, and struvite precipitation have received more attention as applicable processes for strong nitrogenous waste treatment. The advanced oxidation process appears to be more attractive than activated carbon adsorption in terms of the removal of refractory organics when a further treatment of biologically treated effluent is required. Technologies using membrane bioreactors were very effective for solids separation, while reverse osmosis was found to be efficient for water reuse purpose with sufficient removal of refractory organics and nitrogen along with biological treatment. Reuse or recycling of strong nitrogenous wastes and agro-wastewater will be a desirable direction for the future in order to prevent the nitrogenous and organic pollution.
Strong nitrogenous and agro-wastewater: current technological overview and future direction
E. Choi, Z. Yun, T.H. Chung; Strong nitrogenous and agro-wastewater: current technological overview and future direction. Water Sci Technol 1 March 2004; 49 (5-6): 1–5. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2004.0730
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