Efforts to link and balance national water policies, local water action and national security issues are discussed. There needs to be greater clarity of water roles, rights and responsibilities among national stakeholders as well as between states. In some cases, insufficient attention has been paid to local concerns and, in balancing national and local actions, it is necessary to address decentralization in the context of a transboundary state. There is a strong need for enhanced stakeholder participation in the formulation and implementation of national and local water management plans.

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