Given the current world state of affairs, striving for sustainability and the consequent paradigm shift: growth-to-sustainable development, correction-to-prevention and options selection-to-options generation: the corresponding paradigm shift in science-technology-environment-society (STES) education is unavoidable. Accordingly, the essence of the current reform in STES education, worldwide, is a purposed effort to develop students' higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) capability; i.e., question-asking, critical system thinking, decision making and problem solving, at the expense of the “delivery” of lower-order cognitive skills (LOCS)-oriented knowledge. This means a paradigm shift from the contemporary prevalent LOCS algorithmic teaching to HOCS evaluative learning and HOCS-promoting courses, curricula, teaching strategies and assessment methodologies, leading, hopefully to evaluative thinking and transfer. Following the formulation of selected relevant axioms, major paradigm shift in STES research and education for sustainability have been identified. The consequent shift, in the STES context, from disciplinary to inter- and transdisciplinary learning, in science technology and environmental engineering education is discussed, followed by selected examples of successfully implemented HOCS-promoting courses, and assessment methodologies. It is argued, that transferable “HOCS learning” for sustainability can and should be done.
The HOCS paradigm shift from disciplinary knowledge (LOCS) - to interdisciplinary evaluative, system thinking (HOCS): what should it take in science-technology-environment-society oriented courses, curricula and assessment?
U. Zoller, R.W. Scholz; The HOCS paradigm shift from disciplinary knowledge (LOCS) - to interdisciplinary evaluative, system thinking (HOCS): what should it take in science-technology-environment-society oriented courses, curricula and assessment?. Water Sci Technol 1 April 2004; 49 (8): 27–36. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2004.0480
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