CFD modelling of the incorporation of two baffles equally spaced along the longitudinal axis of the pond and with a length equal to 70% of the pond breadth, indicated a potential improvement in the removal of E. coli in a 4-day secondary facultative pond at 25°C from 5 × 106 per 100 ml in the effluent from a 1-day anaerobic pond to 4 × 104 per 100 ml; the reduction in an un-baffled pond was an order of magnitude less effective. The addition of a similarly baffled 4-day primary maturation pond reduced the effluent E. coli count to 340 per 100 ml; the reduction in an un-baffled series was two orders of magnitude less effective. Well designed baffles thus have considerable potential for reducing pond area requirements and hence costs in the hot tropics. These very promising results highlight the need for field studies on baffled pond systems to validate (or allow calibration) of the CFD model used in this study.

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