The relation between floc structure and membrane permeability was studied in a coagulation-MF hybrid process. The floc structure changed with operating parameters in the coagulation process and was quantified with fractal dimension (dF). The concentration ratio between suspended colloids and injected coagulant had an essential effect on dF of coagulated flocs. Larger flocs with low fractal dimension were produced for ALT (aluminum ion concentration dosed/suspended particle concentration) between 0.4 and 0.8. Flocs maintained stable characteristics at the coagulation period of over 20 minutes.
Membrane permeability was improved with coagulated flocs of lower fractal dimension, which tend to have higher porosity and aggregate relatively loosely. These more porous flocs reduce specific resistance of coagulated flocs. The relation between membrane filterability and fractal dimension of flocs was explored in a submerged MF hybrid system as well as in a batch unstirred cell filtration.