Different types of constructed wetlands in a pilot-plant system were fed with identical municipal waste water to compare the sanitisation process in two-stage systems. With combinations of a vertical and a horizontal flow filter an E. coli reduction of 5 log10 with an E. coli influent concentration of 107 MPN/100 ml was achieved. Using different filter materials in each stage the total performance of the two-stage system was independent from the sequence of these materials. However, using coarser filter material in the first stage makes the filter less prone to clogging and is thus the preferential option with regard to operational reliability.

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