The paper explores a methodology for the definition of ecological water quality indicators on the basis of a case study on an alpine river in Austria. Further, it discusses a particular interpretation of the combined approach introduced in the European Union Water Framework Directive that allows violating emission regulations if cost-effective.
Challenges in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive: case study of the alpine River Drau, Austria
S. De Toffol, S. Achleitner, C. Engelhard, W. Rauch; Challenges in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive: case study of the alpine River Drau, Austria. Water Sci Technol 1 November 2005; 52 (9): 243–250. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2005.0329
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