Brazil is currently facing widespread problems in the urban environment associated with inadequate wastewater and urban drainage systems, particularly for low-income communities. These problems are promoted by the rapid and often unplanned urbanization process in developing cities and are compounded by a lack of funding, absence of planning, ineffective institutional arrangements, and inappropriate policies to provide the framework for integrated wastewater and stormwater management. Because planning for the provision of wastewater and urban drainage systems is a complex task, an integrated-modeling approach is proposed to provide a practical methodology for sanitation and urban drainage planning in Brazilian cities. In the model development, as well as technical aspects, other aspects related to institutional, financial, socio-economic, environmental and public health issues were also taken into account.
Analysis of scenarios for wastewater and urban drainage systems in Brazil based on an integrated modeling approach
S.R.A. Soares, J. Parkinson, R.S. Bernardes; Analysis of scenarios for wastewater and urban drainage systems in Brazil based on an integrated modeling approach. Water Sci Technol 1 November 2005; 52 (9): 53–60. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2005.0286
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