Water retention times less than 3 h from inlet to outlet were necessary to meet new effluent requirements without extending the footprint of the existing plant. Nitrogen removal was required at the existing, high loaded, direct precipitation plant and space was not readily available. The staff at the VEAS WWTP took on the task to design a new process at their own risk. Selected solutions and ups and downs in the water treatment during the past 10 years of operations and further developments are presented in this paper. Always asking for well-proven solutions might make life easy. The intent of this paper is to encourage some of our colleagues to be more daring in their approach to new challenges. However, expect sleepless nights in order to solve the unexpected problems along the way.

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