Phosphate removal and recovery can be combined in BNR processes. This may be realised by struvite precipitation from the supernatant of the sludge in anaerobic compartments. This can be beneficial for either improving bio-P removal effluent quality or lowering the influent COD/P ratio required for bio-P removal. For this reason, a patented BNR process, BCFS®, was developed and applied in The Netherlands. Several questions relating to P-recovery and behaviour of the system remain unclear and need to be ascertained. For this purpose, a modelling technique was employed in this study. With the help of a previous developed model describing carbon oxidation and nutrient removal, three cases were fully simulated. The simulations demonstrated that there was an optimal stripping flow rate and P-recovery would increase in costs and bio-P activity might be negatively affected due to decreased bio-P efficiency if this value was exceeded. The simulations indicated that the minimal CODbiod/P ratio required for the effluent standard (1 g P/m3) could be lowered from 20 to 10 with 36% of P-recovery. A simulation with dynamic inflow revealed that the dynamic influent loads affected slightly the anaerobic supernatant phosphate concentration but the effluent phosphate concentration would not be affected with regular P-recovery.

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