Instrumentation, control and automation (ICA) are key technologies in modern water and wastewater systems. Ever present disturbances make it necessary to automatically attenuate their consequences. A wastewater treatment system is load driven, while a water distribution system is demand driven. Despite the variability the system outputs have to be satisfactory. Economic realities encourages the application of ICA to make a maximum use of plant capacities. An increasing complexity of competing processes in a modern nutrient removal plant makes more elaborate control necessary. The final goal of protecting the environmental resources necessitates an integrated view of several interdependent systems, the collection, transport and treatment processes. In this integrating development ICA will be a decisive technology.

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