In this study, with the KNR® process that has many advantages, the nitrogen removal efficiency of KNR was experimentally investigated at various COD/N ratios of influent conditions. The optimal operating condition of internal recycle ratio was evaluated. The TN removal efficiencies were 59.1, 72.5 and 75.9% at the COD/N ratios of 3, 5 and 7, respectively. These high removal efficiencies resulted from high denitrification rate in UMBR with high microorganism concentration. Furthermore, specific endogenous denitrification at MLVSS of 10.3 g/L that is similar to MLVSS in UMBR was over two times higher than that at MLVSS of 2.06 g/L. This result suggests that endogenous denitrification rate in UMBR is so high that the requirement of an external carbon source can be saved. As the internal recycle ratio increased from 100 to 400%, the TN removal efficiency also improved from 69.5 to 82.9%, and the optimal internal recycle ratio was 300%.

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