The adsorption of viruses in untreated flushed dairy manure wastewater (FDMW), anaerobically digested flushed dairy manure wastewater (ADFDMW) and groundwater to sandy soil was investigated. Batch adsorption studies showed differential adsorption of viruses in groundwater to soil. Less than 75% of PRD1 and MS2 added to groundwater adsorbed after 1 h, but greater than 95% of ΦX174 and poliovirus 1 adsorbed to the soil. Adsorption differences in groundwater were related to the isoelectric points of the viruses. Suspending phages in untreated and treated wastewater reduced adsorption compared with groundwater. For MS2, more phages were adsorbed using ADFDMW than with FDMW. Adsorption of poliovirus 1 was not affected by FDMW and ADFDMW. Small column studies (6×2.5 cm) produced a similar trend in that adsorption was observed with groundwater and both FDMW and ADFDMW reduced virus adsorption. Groundwater, FDMW or ADFDMW did not affect the adsorption of poliovirus 1 in column studies. The major difference between FDMW and ADFDMW was in mobilisation of adsorbed viruses. The application of FDMW to soil columns with adsorbed viruses caused significantly more viruses to be mobilised than did the application of rainwater or ADFDMW. These results showed that treating FDMW by anaerobic digestion increased the adsorption of viruses to soil and decreased detachment of adsorbed viruses. As the potential for new zoonotic pathogens becomes known, the treatment of animal wastes may become mandatory. The assessment and management of viruses in manure for addressing possible risk to animal and human health is of interest.

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