Floodwaters in Kampung Melayu village, Jakarta, Indonesia, as well as river water and consumable water (including groundwater and tap water) samples in flooded and non-flooded areas, were quantitatively analysed to assess occurrence of viruses and total coliforms and E. coli as bacterial indicators after flooding event. High numbers of enterovirus, hepatitis A virus, norovirus (G1, G2) and adenovirus were detected at high concentration in floodwaters and waters sampled from Ciliwung River which runs across metropolitan Jakarta and is used widely for agriculture and domestic purposes by poor residents. One out of three groundwater wells in the flooded area was contaminated with all viruses tested while no viruses were found in groundwater samples in non-flooded areas and tap water samples. The results revealed that human enteric viruses, especially hepatitis A virus and adenovirus, were prevalent in Jakarta, Indonesia. This study suggested that flooding posed a higher risk of viral infection to the people through contamination of drinking water sources or direct contact with floodwaters.
Monitoring of human enteric viruses and coliform bacteria in waters after urban flood in Jakarta, Indonesia
C. Phanuwan, S. Takizawa, K. Oguma, H. Katayama, A. Yunika, S. Ohgaki; Monitoring of human enteric viruses and coliform bacteria in waters after urban flood in Jakarta, Indonesia. Water Sci Technol 1 August 2006; 54 (3): 203–210. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2006.470
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