In this study, feasibility of membrane separation for the removal of indigenous noroviruses (NVs) is evaluated. The indigenous NV gene was never detected from ultrafiltration (UF) permeates of sewage sludge and treated wastewater. Indigenous NV gene was also not detected from permeates of sewage sludge and treated wastewater by microfiltration (MF) with a pore size of 0.1 μm (MF0.1). Even though the pore size of MF (0.1 μm) was much larger than the diameter of virus particle (approximately 30–40 nm), more than 4-log10 reduction value (LRV) at maximum was achieved by membrane separation with MF0.1. NV genes were often detected from permeates of sewage sludge and treated wastewater by MF with a pore size of 0.45 μm (MF0.45), although the maximum log10 reduction values were more than 3.59 for sewage sludge and more than 2.90 for treated wastewater. It is important to verify factors determining the removal efficiency of viruses with MF membranes.
Membrane separation of indigenous noroviruses from sewage sludge and treated wastewater
D. Sano, Y. Ueki, T. Watanabe, T. Omura; Membrane separation of indigenous noroviruses from sewage sludge and treated wastewater. Water Sci Technol 1 August 2006; 54 (3): 77–82. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2006.451
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