Nitrate reduction processes were incorporated into the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) in order to account for the effect of such processes on fermentation and methanogenesis. The general structure of the ADM1 was not changed except for modifications related to disintegration and hydrolysis of complex organic matter and decayed biomass. A fraction of butyrate/valerate and propionate degraders was assumed to be the fermentative denitrifiers carrying out fermentation in the absence of N-oxides. Nitrate reduction proceeded in a stepwise manner to nitrite, nitric oxide, nitrous oxide and nitrogen gas using four substrates as electron and/or carbon source. The utilization of the four substrates and N-oxides was based on stoichiometry and kinetics. The inhibitory effect of N-oxides on the methanogens was accounted for by the use of non-competitive inhibition functions. Model simulations were compared with experimental data obtained with a batch, mixed fermenting and methanogenic culture amended with various initial nitrate concentrations.

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