An elutriation apparatus was proposed for testing the settleability of combined sewer outflows (CSOs) and applied to 12 CSO samples. In this apparatus, solids settling is measured under dynamic conditions created by flow through a series of settling chambers of varying diameters and upward flow velocities. Such a procedure reproduces better turbulent settling in CSO tanks than the conventional settling columns, and facilitates testing coagulant additions under dynamic conditions. Among the limitations, one could name the relatively large size of the apparatus and samples (60 L), and inadequate handling of floatables. Settleability results obtained for the elutriation apparatus and a conventional settling column indicate large inter-event variation in CSO settleability. Under such circumstances, settling tanks need to be designed for “average” conditions and, within some limits, the differences in test results produced by various settleability testing apparatuses and procedures may be acceptable. Further development of the elutriation apparatus is under way, focusing on reducing flow velocities in the tubing connecting settling chambers and reducing the number of settling chambers employed. The first measure would reduce the risk of floc breakage in the connecting tubing and the second one would reduce the required sample size.
An elutriation apparatus for assessing settleability of combined sewer overflows (CSOs)
J. Marsalek, B.G. Krishnappan, K. Exall, Q. Rochfort, R.P. Stephens; An elutriation apparatus for assessing settleability of combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Water Sci Technol 1 September 2006; 54 (6-7): 223–230. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2006.570
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