The growth of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and filamentous sulfur bacteria was monitored on a laboratory scale in activated sludge reactors using acetate and peptone as the artificial wastewater. When the artificial wastewater contained acetate and peptone, filamentous bacteria increased in the sludge and the SVI values increased. There was a good correlation between sulfate reducing activity and sulfur oxidation activity in the produced sludge. The microbial community change of filamentous sulfur bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria was analyzed using the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method. The tendency for the growth of filamentous sulfur bacteria Thiothrix eikelboomii following the growth of SRB was observed. The percentage of SRB385- hybridized cells and DNMA657-hybridized cells found in the total cell area increased from 2–3% to 7–10% when the filamentous bulking occurred.

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