The Water Resources Agency (WRA), Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has predicted that the annual water demand in Taiwan will reach approximately 20 billion m3 by 2021. However, the present water supply is only 18 billion m3 per year. This means that an additional 2 billion m3 have to be developed in the next 17 years. The reuse of treated wastewater effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants could be one target for the development of new water resources. The responsible government departments already have plans to construct public sewerage systems in order to improve the quality of life of the populace and protect the environment. The treated wastewater effluent from such municipal wastewater treatment plants could be a very stable and readily available secondary type of water resource, different from the traditional types of water resources. The major areas where reclaimed municipal wastewater can be used to replace traditional fresh water resources include agricultural and landscape irrigation, street cleaning, toilet flushing, secondary industrial reuse and environmental uses. However, necessary wastewater reclamation and reuse systems have not yet been established. The requirements for their establishment include water reuse guidelines and criteria, the elimination of health risks ensuring safe use, the determination of the wastewater treatment level appropriate for the reuse category, as well as the development and application of management systems reuse. An integrated system for water reuse would be of great benefit to us all by providing more efficient ways to utilise the water resources.

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