WSPs are widely used in North America, and offer huge potential for other continental climate regions. The standard design and operating protocol is robust even at high latitudes, but may be conservative elsewhere. A simple model based on first-order kinetics for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is used to consider some alternative design and operating protocols, using long-term daily climate records for cities across continental central Asia. Options include changing the discharge period; retaining treated water in the pond over the winter; and changing the facultative pond loading. Annual variability in climate parameters has a major effect, in particular on the date at which treated wastewater meets appropriate standards for discharge or re-use: the earlier the discharge, the greater the variability in effluent quality. Skilful management of these systems may therefore be required to maximise their performance. While current models require development, it is clear modelling could provide tools and guidelines that would allow the design of continental climate WSP to be tailored to specific regional and local climate conditions.

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