A mathematical model to simulate the performance of anaerobic ponds was developed incorporating both settling of particulate components and the biological anaerobic digestion process. The biological activity includes solubilization of particulate organic matter; methanogenesis and the sulphate reduction process. The model considers that an anaerobic pond comprises a series of equal size columns. Each column has three compartments viz. liquid layer, active sediment layer and inert sediment layer. The existence of organic matter and sulphate removal mechanisms both in the bulk as well as sediment layer of the ponds and the exchange of the soluble components between the layers has been included in the model. The model was transferred to a computer program using VisSim Basic software. The model was verified by comparing simulated results with full-scale as well as with laboratory-scale anaerobic pond performance data. A good agreement between the simulated and the observed pond performance was achieved.

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