Thanks to multiple recirculation of process water, the German paper industry has succeeded in decreasing the specific fresh water demand from an average of 50 m3/t thirty years ago to 13 m3/t today. Although the increasing closure of white water loops creates many problems, it is bound to be part of the German paper industry's ongoing development. For a few years, in the production of packaging paper, two paper mills have been running with a totally closed water system including different process water treatment plants as ‘kidneys’. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the pros and cons of closed process water systems followed by significant examples of effluent-free production of corrugating medium and test liner. Additionally, operation experiences and economic aspects are discussed.
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Research Article| March 01 2007
Effluent-free papermaking: industrial experiences and latest developments in the German paper industry
Water Sci Technol (2007) 55 (6): 205–211.
U. Hamm, S. Schabel; Effluent-free papermaking: industrial experiences and latest developments in the German paper industry. Water Sci Technol 1 March 2007; 55 (6): 205–211. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2007.230
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