Thanks to multiple recirculation of process water, the German paper industry has succeeded in decreasing the specific fresh water demand from an average of 50 m3/t thirty years ago to 13 m3/t today. Although the increasing closure of white water loops creates many problems, it is bound to be part of the German paper industry's ongoing development. For a few years, in the production of packaging paper, two paper mills have been running with a totally closed water system including different process water treatment plants as ‘kidneys’. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the pros and cons of closed process water systems followed by significant examples of effluent-free production of corrugating medium and test liner. Additionally, operation experiences and economic aspects are discussed.

This content is only available as a PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.