The nutrient limited biofilm-activated sludge (BAS) process was developed with the aim to ensure maximum biological treatment efficiency in combination with good process stability, low sludge production and minimum effluent concentration of nutrients. The first full scale nutrient limited BAS (NLBAS) processes were implemented at Södra Cell Värö and Stora Enso Hylte in 2002. Since then another three full scale installations have been built. The aim of this study was to investigate and summarise the long-term treatment results, process stability, sludge production and sludge characteristics for the five full scale NLBAS processes. It was of particular interest to compare the nutrient limited operating mode with regard to the different types of production and wastewater that the mills represent (kraft, TMP and newsprint, bleached CTMP). The study showed that after the initial start-up period, which varied from a couple of weeks to three to four months, all plants meet their respective discharge limits. The sludge production for the different plants varies between 0.07 and 0.15 kg TSS/kg COD and the sludge characteristics are with few exceptions excellent. In conclusion, the nutrient limited BAS process is suitable for both upgrades and new installations of biological treatment for different types of forest industry wastewaters.

This content is only available as a PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.