The demands established in the rules and regulations by the administration in Catalonia seem to exclude small communities from wastewater reclamation and reuse, due to the comparatively high costs associated with the practice at small scale. In the framework of the DRAC project (Demonstration on Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse in Catalonia) two different pre-treatment systems, one extensive (infiltration–percolation) and another intensive (ring filter), each one followed by chlorine dioxide disinfection, were tested in order to be applied for small communities wastewater reclamation and reuse. The results of this study show that infiltration–percolation systems remove very efficiently physico-chemical contaminants and microorganisms. The ring filter system does not show a significant removal rate of contaminants. The use of infiltration–percolation as a pre-treatment for advanced chemical disinfection allows reducing the dose of disinfectant and the contact time needed to achieve a specific water quality, and diminishes disinfection by-products (DBPs) generation. Therefore, this reclamation line is suitable for small communities due to its efficiency and low cost. However, further studies are needed in relation to the removal mechanisms of microorganisms, organic compounds in IP systems and the possible DBPs formation using chlorine dioxide.
Wastewater reclamation systems in small communities
L. Alcalde, M. Folch, J.C. Tapias, E. Huertas, A. Torrens, M. Salgot; Wastewater reclamation systems in small communities. Water Sci Technol 1 April 2007; 55 (7): 149–154. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2007.139
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