In order to consider the total atmospheric loadings of the PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from traffic activities, the emission factors of PAHs were estimated and from the obtained emission factors and vehicle transportation statistics, total atmospheric loadings were integrated and the loadings into the water body were estimated on a regional scale. The atmospheric concentration of PAHs was measured at the roadside of a road with heavy traffic in the Hiroshima area in Japan. The samplings were conducted in summer and winter. Atmospheric particulate matters (fine particle, 0.6–7 μm; coarse particle, over 7 μm) and their PAH concentration were measured. Also, four major emission sources (gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions, tire and asphalt debris) were assumed for vehicle transportation activities, the chemical mass balance method was applied and the source partitioning at the roadside was estimated. Furthermore, the dispersion of atmospheric particles from the vehicles was modelled and the emission factors of the sources were determined by the comparison to the chemical mass balance results. Based on emission factors derived from the modelling, an atmospheric dispersion model of nationwide scale (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology - Atmospheric Dispersion Model for Exposure and Risk assessment) was applied, and the atmospheric concentration and loading to the ground were calculated for the Hiroshima Bay watershed area.
Estimation of the emission factors of PAHs by traffic with the model of atmospheric dispersion and deposition from heavy traffic road
N. Ozaki, H. Tokumitsu, K. Kojima, T. Kindaichi; Estimation of the emission factors of PAHs by traffic with the model of atmospheric dispersion and deposition from heavy traffic road. Water Sci Technol 1 July 2007; 56 (1): 233–242. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2007.457
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