An area-differentiated model approach (MEPhos) for the quantification of mean annual P-inputs from point and diffuse sources is presented. The following pathways are considered: artificial drainage, wash-off, groundwater outflow, soil erosion, rainwater sewers, combined sewer overflows, municipal waste water treatment plants and industrial effluents. Based on the modelling results “hot spots” for high P-loads can be localized and management option for the input reduction to surface waters proposed. The model is applied to the River Ruhr basin (4,485 km2) in Germany with contrasting natural conditions, land use patterns as well as population and industry densities.

This content is only available as a PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.