Runoff heavy metals from farmland were examined using the field data for the summer of 2005. The observation farmland is located on lowland where the irrigation water was contaminated with the drained water from the upstream farmlands. The area of the farmland is 11.2 ha, of which 6.0 ha and 4.5 ha have been used for rice paddy fields and soybean cultivation, respectively. During the observation, heavy metal concentrations at the downstream end were usually found to be higher than those in the irrigation water. That is, the heavy metal concentrations increased due to the passage of the water through the farmland. This increase in the heavy metal concentrations is not equal to the discharge of the heavy metal because the evaporation on the surface of the paddy field and the absorption by plants makes the surface water volume small. The discharged load from the farmland generally indicates the gross surface load from the farmland. When the effects of circulation irrigation on the heavy metal concentrations are estimated, the discharged load from the farmland should be calculated as the net surface load. When the runoff heavy metals from the circulation irrigation farmland are estimated, it is important to consider the inflowing heavy metals with irrigation water. All the heavy metal types observed in this study were discharged from the farmland. The net surface loads of Cr, Fe, Cd, and Pb were 371 μg m−2 day−1, 14.9 mg m−2 day−1, 0.26 μg m−2 day−1, and 3.3 μg m−2 day−1, respectively.
Surface discharge of heavy metals from low farmland
K. Hamada, I. Yoshinaga, T. Hitomi, A. Miura, E. Shiratani, K. Takaki; Surface discharge of heavy metals from low farmland. Water Sci Technol 1 July 2007; 56 (1): 99–104. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2007.440
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