Different homologues of C4 to C8 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs) were detected in German surface waters, bank filtrates, artificially recharged groundwaters, and drinking waters. If no point sources are located nearby, the typically measured levels are in the low ng/L range. In the presence of point sources, such as a fluorochemical production site, a leaching agricultural fertilizer contaminated with PFCAs and PFASs, or drained PFC containing fire-fighting foams, much higher concentrations in the μg/L range occur. This situation is similar in Germany and other countries.
Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and carboxylates in German drinking water sources compared to other countries
F.T. Lange, M. Wenz, C.K. Schmidt, H.-J. Brauch; Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and carboxylates in German drinking water sources compared to other countries. Water Sci Technol 1 December 2007; 56 (11): 151–158. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2007.803
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