Among the most common non-conventional wastewater treatment techniques used in the Czech Republic are waste stabilisation ponds (WSP), subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetlands (CW) and vertical flow groundfilters (GF). These extensive systems can be advantageously used for treatment of waters coming from sewerages where the ballast weighting commonly makes more than half of dry-weather flow. The monitoring was focused at 14 different extensive systems. Organics removal efficiencies were favourable (CW–82%; GF–88%); in the case of WSP only 57% due to the algal bloom. Total nitrogen removal efficiencies were 43 and 47% for WSP and GF; in the case of CW only 32% due to often occurring anaerobic conditions in filter beds. Total phosphorus removal efficiencies were 37, 35 and 22% for WSP, GF and CW, respectively. Often occurring problems are the ice-blockage of surface aerators at WSP during wintertimes, the pond duckweed-cover or the algal bloom at WSP during summers; a gradual colmatage of filter systems; and the oxygen deficiency in beds of subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetlands.
Czech legal regulations do not allow treated wastewater disposal into underground waters. There is only an exception for individual family houses. Up to now, knowledge gained by monitoring of a village (which uses the infiltration upon a permission issued according to earlier legal regulations) have not shown an unacceptable groundwater quality deterioration into the infiltration areas.