In this paper, we propose a statistical theoretical framework for incorporation of sensor and actuator faults in dynamic simulations of wastewater treatment operation. Sensor and actuator faults and failures are often neglected in simulations for control strategy development and testing, although it is well known that they represent a significant obstacle for realising control at full-scale facilities. The framework for incorporating faults and failures is based on Markov chains and displays the appealing property of easy transition of sensor and actuator history into a model for fault generation. The paper briefly describes Markov theory and how this is used together with models for sensor and actuator dynamics to achieve a realistic simulation of measurements and actuators.

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