Pathogenic microorganisms have been identified as the main human health risks associated with the reuse of treated urban stormwater (runoff from paved and unpaved urban areas). As part of the Smart Water initiative (Victorian Government, Australia), a collaborative evaluation of three existing integrated stormwater recycling systems, and the risks involved in non-potable reuse of treated urban stormwater is being undertaken. Three stormwater recycling systems were selected at urban locations to provide a range of barriers including biofiltration, storage tanks, UV disinfection, a constructed wetland, and retention ponds. Recycled water from each of the systems is used for open space irrigation. In order to adequately undertake exposure assessments, it was necessary to quantify the efficacy of key barriers in each exposure pathway. Given that none of the selected treatment systems had previously been evaluated for their treatment efficiency, experimental work was carried out comprising dry and wet weather monitoring of each system (for a period of 12 months), as well as challenging the barriers with model microbes (for viruses, bacteria and parasitic protozoa) to provide input data for use in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment.

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