In a Sino-German research project, a sustainable water reclamation concept was developed for different applications of municipal water reuse at the Olympic Green 2008 in Beijing, China. Results from pilot-scale experiments in Beijing and Berlin show that selective nutrient removal by adsorption onto granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) after a membrane bioreactor (MBR) can maintain a total phosphorus concentration of <0.03 μg L−1 P, thus preventing eutrophication of artificial lakes. Operation time of GFH adsorption columns can be extended by regeneration using sodium hydroxide solution. A subsequent ultrafiltration (UF) membrane after bank filtration creates an additional barrier for pathogens and allows for further urban reuse applications such as toilet flushing. Short term bank / bio-filtration prior to UF is shown to effectively remove biopolymers and reduce membrane fouling.
An integrated wastewater reuse concept combining natural reclamation techniques, membrane filtration and metal oxide adsorption
A. Sperlich, X. Zheng, M. Jekel, M. Ernst; An integrated wastewater reuse concept combining natural reclamation techniques, membrane filtration and metal oxide adsorption. Water Sci Technol 1 March 2008; 57 (6): 909–914. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2008.186
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