In a Sino-German research project, a sustainable water reclamation concept was developed for different applications of municipal water reuse at the Olympic Green 2008 in Beijing, China. Results from pilot-scale experiments in Beijing and Berlin show that selective nutrient removal by adsorption onto granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) after a membrane bioreactor (MBR) can maintain a total phosphorus concentration of <0.03 μg L−1 P, thus preventing eutrophication of artificial lakes. Operation time of GFH adsorption columns can be extended by regeneration using sodium hydroxide solution. A subsequent ultrafiltration (UF) membrane after bank filtration creates an additional barrier for pathogens and allows for further urban reuse applications such as toilet flushing. Short term bank / bio-filtration prior to UF is shown to effectively remove biopolymers and reduce membrane fouling.

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