The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester for food waste treatment. To enhance the performance of anaerobic digestion in the HASL system, thermal pre-treatment (heating at 150°C for 1 h) and freezing/thawing (freezing for 24 h at−20°C and then thawing for 12 h at 25°C) were proposed for food waste pre-treatment before the anaerobic digestion. Both processes were able to alter the characteristics and structure of food waste favoring substance solubilization, and hence production of methane. However, there was no net energy gain when the energy required by the pre-treatment processes was taken into account.

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