Field experiments were conducted in agricultural fields in which secondary wastewater of the City of Arad (Israel) is reused for irrigation. For sustainable agricultural production and safe groundwater recharge the secondary effluent is further polished by a combined two-stage membrane pilot system. The pilot membrane system consists of two main in row stages: Ultrafiltration (UF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO). The UF stage is efficient in the removal of the pathogens and suspended organic matter while the successive RO stage provides safe removal of the dissolved solids (salinity). Effluents of various qualities were applied for agricultural irrigation along with continuous monitoring of the membrane system performance. Best agricultural yields were obtained when applying effluent having minimal content of dissolved solids (after the RO stage) as compared with secondary effluent without any further treatment and extended storage. In regions with shallow groundwater reduced soil salinity in the upper productive layers, maintained by extra membrane treatment, will guarantee minimal dissolved solids migration to the aquifers and minimize salinisation processes.
Membrane technology for sustainable treated wastewater reuse: agricultural, environmental and hydrological considerations
Gideon Oron, Leonid Gillerman, Amos Bick, Yossi Manor, Nisan Buriakovsky, Joseph Hagin; Membrane technology for sustainable treated wastewater reuse: agricultural, environmental and hydrological considerations. Water Sci Technol 1 May 2008; 57 (9): 1383–1388. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2008.243
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