In this study, removals of 1-naphthol by oxidative-coupling reaction using birnessite, one of the natural Mn oxides present in soil, was investigated in various experimental conditions (reaction time, Mn oxide loadings, pH). The removal efficiency of 1-naphthol by birnessite was high in all the experimental conditions, and UV-visible and mass spectrometric analyses on the supernatant after reaction confirmed that the reaction products were oligomers formed by oxidative-coupling reaction. Pseudo-first order rate constants, k, for the oxidative transformation of 1-naphthol by birnessite was derived from the kinetic experiments under various amounts of birnessite loadings, and using the observed pseudo-first order rate constants with respect to birnessite loadings, the surface area normalised specific rate constant, ksurf, was also determined to be 9.3 × 10−4 (L/m2·min) for 1-naphthol. In addition, the oxidative transformation of 1-naphthol was found to be dependent on solution pH, and the pseudo-first order rate constants were increased from 0.129 at pH 10 to 0.187 at pH 4.

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