This paper concerns a particular aspect of anaerobic digestion, that is the emission of PCDD/F in different scenarios where this biological process is present. The considered scenarios are: anaerobic digestion of automatically sorted Municipal Solid Waste, source separated organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste treated in an anaerobic digester, anaerobic process developed in a Municipal Solid Waste sanitary landfill. Not always the emissions taken into account are related to combustion of biogas from anaerobic digestion: the loss of biogas from a landfill causes an uncontrolled emission of PCDD/F. The paper is completed with an analysis of the role of anaerobic digestion in PCDD/F inventories and health risk considerations. Indeed the most detailed inventories offer emission factors useful for a deep understanding of the phenomenon of PCDD/F release into the atmosphere. Concerning health risk, some suggestions in order to decrease it are proposed.

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