Combined rapid gravity filtration and backwash models have been applied to simulate filtration and backwash cycles. The simulated results from the backwash model suggest that an optimum air flow rate exists to maximise particle removal efficiency in the backwash operation for a certain backwash system. The simulation of combined rapid gravity filtration and backwash models suggests that the filter shouldn't be completely cleaned up in the backwash and a certain amount of particles retained on filter grains after backwash can be beneficial for subsequent filtration runs. This is consistent with the experimental results in the literature.

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