Flocculation with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and titanium sulfate (Ti(SO4)2) was investigated in terms of different coagulant doses, pH, turbidity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV-254, colour, zeta potential, particle size and molecular weight distribution. The two coagulants were compared with the commonly used coagulants such as ferric chloride (FeCl3) and aluminium sulfate (Al2(SO4)3). Titanium tetrachloride showed the highest turbidity removal, while titanium sulfate showed the highest reduction of UV-254 and colour at all pH values. The four coagulants were found to have similar organic removal up to 60–67% and resulted in similar organic removal in terms of various MW ranges. The decantability of the settled flocs was very high for titanium tetrachloride, titanium sulfate and ferric chloride compared with aluminium sulfate. The dominating coagulation mechanisms for titanium tetrachloride and titanium sulfate are still to be studied, since different precipitation reactions might take place at different pH even without flocculant addition. Titanium tetrachloride and titanium sulfate were found as effective new coagulants in wastewater treatment not only in terms of organic matter removal, but also in sludge reduction through the production of titanium dioxide.
Characterisation of titanium tetrachloride and titanium sulfate flocculation in wastewater treatment
Y. Okour, H. K. Shon, I. El Saliby; Characterisation of titanium tetrachloride and titanium sulfate flocculation in wastewater treatment. Water Sci Technol 1 June 2009; 59 (12): 2463–2473. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2009.254
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