The applicability of O3, UV/H2O2 and O3/UV treatment processes as technologies for water reuse considering pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) removal was investigated. Electrical energies required for the effective removal of various PPCPs in secondary effluent were 0.09 kWh/m3, 0.54 kWh/m3 and 1.09 kWh/m3 for O3, UV/H2O2 and O3/UV treatments, respectively, showing that O3 treatment is the most cost-effective treatment option for the PPCPs removal. O3 treatment showed the effective PPCPs removal at O3 dose of 6 mg/L; however, the formation of bromate is expected for O3 treatment using O3 dose of more than 4 mg/L. In particular, bromate formation will be a critical issue when the reclaimed water is used for direct/indirect potable reuses. Therefore, in order to suppress the bromate formation as well as achieve the effective PPCPs removal, O3/UV treatment will be recommended. UV/H2O2 treatment will be also a profitable treatment method because no bromate will be formed during the process. The evaluation for ecological risk of PPCPs by the applied processes showed that all the processes could decrease the ecological risk caused by parent PPCPs considerably. This means that the investigated treatment processes can play an important role in reducing unpredictable side effects caused by PPCPs in the aquatic environment.
Discussion on the application of UV/H2O2, O3 and O3/UV processes as technologies for sewage reuse considering the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products
I. H. Kim, N. Yamashita, Y. Kato, H. Tanaka; Discussion on the application of UV/H2O2, O3 and O3/UV processes as technologies for sewage reuse considering the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Water Sci Technol 1 March 2009; 59 (5): 945–955. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2009.076
Download citation file: