Results of experiments investigating geochemical changes during artificial recharge of treated wastewater at a coastal sandfill, reclaimed with sand dredged from the seabed, are reported in this paper. Laboratory batch experiments were conducted using secondary effluent (SE) and SE treated with an additional ultrafiltration process (UF), and wastewater treated by reverse osmosis (RO) process, mixed with surface sand obtained from the sandfill. Experiments with RO showed a net increase of 0.41 meq/L, 0.12 meq/L and 0.31 meq/L for Ca2 + , Mg2 + and HCO3−, respectively. UF and SE also exhibited net increase in Ca2 + , Mg2 + and HCO3− indicating carbonate mineral dissolution. All three waters were found to be over-saturated with respect to calcite. Carbonate dissolution reactions were observed in the field experiments. However, the presence of imported clays from the borrow source gave rise to ion exchange reactions where Na+ attached to the clay particles were exchanged for Ca2 + and Mg2 + inducing mineral dissolution, driven by sub-saturation conditions. This resulted in an increase in pH with maximum values in excess of 9.0. It was also found that the sodium adsorption ratio remained high (>10) even after the groundwater had been diluted sufficiently to freshwater levels (ionic strength, I<0.015) indicating a potential for the dispersion of clay particles. This could have a deleterious consequence on porosity and hydraulic conductivity.
Geochemical changes during recharge with tertiary-treated wastewater at a coastal sandfill
Lloyd H. C. Chua, Edmond Y. M. Lo, Teik Thye Lim, Alexander P. Robertson, Eng Ban Shuy, Soon Keat Tan; Geochemical changes during recharge with tertiary-treated wastewater at a coastal sandfill. Water Sci Technol 1 May 2009; 60 (5): 1273–1281. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2009.450
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