Legionella is a bacterium that is ubiquitous in natural and artificial aquatic environments. Some species of Legionella are recognized as opportunistic potential human pathogens. We investigated the distribution of Legionella at seventeen WWTPs throughout Taiwan. Legionella were detected in 10 of the 17 WWTPs (58.8%) and 25 of 41 samples (61.0%). In the integrated, hospital, industrial and domestic wastewater systems were 13/18 (72.2%), 7/12 (58.3%), 2/7 (28.6%) and 3/4 (75.0%) of the samples were positive for Legionella, respectively. The most frequently encountered species were L. donaldsonii and uncultured L. spp., which were both found in 10 samples (24.4% of all samples), then followed by L. lytica (4.9%) and L. pneumophila (4.9%). L. anisa was detected in one sample (2.4%). The results of this survey confirm that Legionella are ubiquitous in WWTPs in Taiwan. Therefore, long-term investigations should be conducted to evaluate the overall occurrence of Legionella in WWTPs in Taiwan.

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