Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy was used to distinguish between two stages of reverse osmosis (RO) permeates as the first step towards investigating the potential application of fluorescence as a monitoring tool for membrane performance. The signal response of several fluorescence peaks present in Stage 1 and Stage 2 RO permeates of an advanced water treatment plant were compared. The humic-like fluorescence region was found to have the largest percentage difference between stages and therefore was the most appropriate for enabling differentiation. Increases in humic-like fluorescence did not correlate with increases in conductivity or dissolved organic carbon measurements. This suggests that fluorescence is a more selective and sensitive method for monitoring the organic composition of RO permeates than established methods. Fluorescence is therefore a promising tool for improved water quality monitoring of RO permeates.
Distinguishing stage 1 and 2 reverse osmosis permeates using fluorescence spectroscopy
S. Singh, R. K. Henderson, A. Baker, R. M. Stuetz, S. J. Khan; Distinguishing stage 1 and 2 reverse osmosis permeates using fluorescence spectroscopy. Water Sci Technol 1 October 2009; 60 (8): 2017–2023. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2009.515
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