The mechanism of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) adsorption on perfil—natural mineral taken from Bulgarian deposits, in a fixed-bed column was investigated. The single component experiments were conducted at constant initial sorbate concentration, volumetric flow rate, temperature and pH. The effect of adsorbent bed depth (Z 1, 2, 3, 6 cm) and sorbate nature on the adsorption capacity, mass transfer parameters and mechanisms was studied. The equilibrium behaviour of the system 4-NP-perfil was described by Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson models. The single resistance Thomas model, including Reynolds-Richards and Walter solutions, and the two-resistance Arnold model were applied for mathematical modeling of the experimental data. The comparative analyses indicated that external mass transfer was the rate limiting mechanism during the initial adsorption stages, while intraparticle diffusion was dominant in the middle and high concentration ranges. The effect of axial dispersion on the dynamics of adsorption was evaluated.

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