Kanuma mud, a geomaterial, is used as an adsorbent for the removal of fluoride from water. The influences of contact time, solution pH, adsorbent dosage, initial fluoride concentration and co-existing ions were investigated by batch equilibration studies. The rate of adsorption was rapid with equilibrium being attained after about 2 h, and the maximum removal of fluoride was obtained at pH 5.0–8.0. The Freundlich isotherm model was found to represent the measured adsorption data well. The negative value of the thermodynamic parameter ΔG suggests the adsorption of fluoride by Kanuma mud was spontaneous, the endothermic nature of adsorption was confirmed by the positive ΔH value. The negative ΔS value for adsorbent denoted decreased randomness at the solid/liquid interface. The adsorption process using Kanuma mud followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Fluoride uptake by the Kanuma mud was a complex process and intra-particle diffusion played a major role in the adsorption process. It was found that adsorbed fluoride could be easily desorbed by washing the adsorbent with a solution of pH 12. This indicates the material could be easily recycled.

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